Thanks to Matthew for the idea to frame my talk as a "Newcomer's Take." It is something that happens all the time that people start in new areas, and I appreciate the reassurance. I feel silly for having not paced myself on this material since now I'm playing catch-up with very little time before my talk, and I've maybe spent 3 hours on the literature total, ever. This is a very applied area, but I think you're right that there's room for a few slides of speculation so I'll return my technical semi-bullshit to the talk.
I ended up sending a hopefully not too cranky note to my postdoc advisor telling him for the first time that I hope that in the future we can find a way to use my strengths instead of my undergrad RA skills. That didn't help one bit with the research, but it did make me stop feeling so passive-agressive about the whole issue and like I can continue with my life.
Post-postscript: I brought a literally 8 inch stack of papers with me to the conference abroad, and compiled them into something to say. I found some common ideas, some of my own criticisms and critical thinking to the ideas, tried to apply it to the mission. My postdoc advisor spoke for 2 hours prior to my talk, and during his talk, I made at least half a dozen more slides as I thought of new ideas related to what he was saying. My final talk was definitely passable, and maybe someone somewhere actually learned something. I did make prominent reference to my upcoming defense, so hopefully that excused quite a lot.